In Hemp 106, we discuss how CBD may help maintain one's health by body part based on the latest scientific data.
CBD is not a drug.
The FDA does not allow PharmaXtracts to advertise CBD as either a drug or as a nutritional supplement. The FDA must consider CBD made from industrial hemp in conformance with the Legitimacy of Industrial Hemp Research section of the Agricultural Act of 2014, 7 USC §5940, a food and nothing more. Any statement CBD acts to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease is forbidden by federal regulations. Therefore, the most that we or any other CBD website can legally say is what CBD does leaving it up to the customer to decide if CBD may diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or ailment they may have. That is why no particular disease is mentioned in this blog.
A convenient way of discussing CBD's properties is in relation to various parts of the human body. Customers are advised to keep in mind that none of the statements made in this blog have not been evaluated by the United States Food and Drug Administration and, therefore, we cannot advertise PharmaXtracts CBD has any curative medical properties and, instead, we must state in conformance with FDA regulations that CBD is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. PharmaXtracts suggests its customers seek the advice of their personal physician before using CBD or any other product derived from cannabis especially if the customer has a serious medical condition, uses prescription medications, is pregnant, or is nursing a child. Customers should note that PharmaXtracts CBD products are not for sale to persons under the age of 21, and they should be kept out of the reach of children.
Given those limitations, certain medical ailments are not necessary diseases, such as pain, anxiety and inflammation, which may come and go without any associated disease and, therefore, we discuss some medical issues that do not rise to the level of a disease. Although CBD characteristics are listed by the organ most likely affected, many CBD traits affect more than one portion of the human body.
CBD interacts with serotonin receptors to decrease anxiety.
A serotonin receptor is a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems that mediate both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmissions.
A neurotransmitter is a chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber, or some other structure.
CBD can reduce and push back nerve impulses across synapses explaining its ability to ease pain and reduce inhibitory neurotransmissions, a key cause of anxiety.
CBD possesses antioxidant and neuroprotective properties.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services patented synthetic CBD (Patent Number US 6630507 B1) to treat specific medical conditions. The patent abstract filed by scientists from the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health (patent abstract), states in pertinent part,
“Cannabinoids have been found to have antioxidant properties, unrelated to [N-Methry-D- aspartate (MNDA)] receptor antagonism. This new found property makes cannabinoids useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of wide variety of oxidation associated diseases, such as ischemic, age-related, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.”
An antioxidant fights against the over oxidation of the cells and tissues. The right amount of oxygen is needed. Too much oxygen can break down cells like an old car rusting in a damp cow pasture.
Oxidative damages are believed to be caused by free radicals that are made through normal cellular functions. Technically, a free radical is an uncharged molecule having an unpaired valence electron, meaning it is an atom or an atom within a molecule with an outer electron shell that is not full and wants to bond with another atom using the other atom’s electrons to complete its outer shell.
Basic research and observational epidemiologic studies in humans have lead scientists to believe antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage by completing the free radical’s vacant shell space making it less reactive.
A free radical is typically highly reactive and short-lived. Ideally, a body remains in a relatively stable equilibrium called homeostasis, but when age, assault, diet, pollution, or a variety of other factors cause one’s body to fall out of homeostasis, too many free radicals can be formed. Unstable free radicals seeking other atoms or molecules with which to bond cause oxidative stress when the free radicals begin attacking macro-molecules such as the body’s lipids, proteins, and DNA resulting in cellular damage.
CBD limits neurological damage following ischemic insults.
The United State's patent abstract further states,
“The cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and HIV dementia. Nonpsychoactive cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol, are particularly advantageous to use because they avoid toxicity that is encountered with psychoactive cannabinoids at high doses useful in the method of the present invention.”
The brain has both CB1 and CB2 receptors. CBD can loosely attach to CB2 receptors. CBD may act as a neuroprotectant because of its ability to ease inflammation. CBD’s anti-oxidant effect would also speed recovery from an ischemic insult, otherwise know as a knock to the head or an internal aneurysm or a heart attack that deprives the brain of oxygen. What effect CBD has on the recovery or regeneration of the nervous system , its cells, structure, and function still needs further study, but the existing studies are promising.
White blood cells have CB2 receptors allowing CBD to hitch a ride on white blood cells to any part of the body, especially sites of inflammation. Diagram credit MedicalNewsToday.com.
White blood cells responding to the site of an injury is a necessary part of the healing process, but when the white blood cells become too numerous and the inflammation become chronic and lasting, the white blood cells begin to attack healthy cells. Chronic inflammation can also push against sensitive nerve endings thereby causing significant pain. Inflammation in the brain can cause it to swell causing permanent brain damage and death.
A group of Spanish scientists headed by F.J. Alvarez at the Laboratorio de Fisiopatología Perinatal Experimental, Gurutzetako Ospitalea, Bilbo, Bizkaia, Spain, tested the neuroprotective effects of CBD on piglets (baby pigs) who received CBD via intravenous injection after the piglets were made to suffer hypoxia-ischemia head injuries from temporary blocking both their carotid arteries and depriving them of oxygen. The scientists found injecting the piglets with CBD reduced short-term brain damage in comparison with the group of piglets that did not receive CBD injections, that the piglets receiving injections of CBD remained free from side effects, and that injections of CBD were associated with extracerebral benefits such as cardiac, hemodynamic, and ventilatory beneficial effects. See https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18679164.
CBD aids regular sleep and helps suppress bad memories.
A group of Brazilian scientists headed by Ila M. P. Linares at the Department of Neurosciences and Behavioral Sciences, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, tested CBD for possible interference on the sleep-wake cycle. CBD or a placebo was given the volunteers 30 minutes before the start of polysomnography recordings (example below) that lasted 8 hours. The tests showed that administering enough CBD to ease anxiety did not seem to interfere with the sleep cycle of healthy volunteers. See https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5895650/.
The Linares group summarized previous findings on how CBD affected sleep as follows,
“Cannabidiol may play a therapeutic role in sleep regulation (Monti, 1977; Chagas et al., 2014b). In healthy volunteers with regular sleep cycle, 600 mg of CBD induced sedative effects (Zuardi et al., 1993), whereas in subjects with insomnia, acute use of CBD (160 mg/day) was associated with an increase in total sleep time and less frequent awakenings (Carlini and Cunha, 1981). Daily CBD doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg were shown to reduce dream recall and did not cause ‘hangover’ effects compared to placebo (Carlini and Cunha, 1981)."
A group of scientists headed by C.A. Stern at the Department. of Pharmacology, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil, tested CBD’s ability to modulate a fear memory and found their results “suggest the CBD disrupts the consolidation of different fear memories via anandamide-mediated activation of DH CB1 and CB2 receptors.” See https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28754373. This may help explain why veterans who may be suffering from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder have been ordering a lot of CBD.
CBD produces no euphoric high.
CBD produces no euphoric high because CBD does not attach to the CB1 receptors in the brain as does THC's primary metabolite, 11-OH-THC. It is 11-OH-THC attaching to CB1 receptors in the brain that scientists believe causes the euphoric high, not the THC itself. The euphoric high lasts from the time the THC begins to be metastasized into 11-OH-THC to the time all the 11-OH-THC is further metastasized into THC's secondary metabolite, 11-THC-COOH.
CBD actually acts as a THC antidote because it slows down the metastasizing of THC into 11-OH-THC by blocking, but not attaching to, the CB1 receptors in the liver. The high continues until the 11-OH-THC is all metastasized into 11-THC-COOH, after which there are no more euphoric effects. Sadly, most states test for being under the influence of marijuana by measuring the amount of 11-THC-COOH in a person's bloodstream which may test positive for more than a month after the person is no longer under the influence. The correct procedure would be to test for 11-OH-THC which is present, and only present, when the person is experiencing a euphoric high.
CBD is metastasized by the liver, and its effect, such as pain relief, is usually good for 24 hours. Ideally, patients taking high amounts of CBD for pain, such as 250 mg a day, should take their CBD at the same time every day.
The cardiovascular system contains multiple cannabinoid receptors.
CBD may reduces blood pressure in certain instances.
CBD relaxes and reduces permeability of the arterial walls.
CBD decreases plaque adhesion and accumulation.
CBD reduces restraint stress-induced cardiovascular response.
CBD reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines.
CBD reduces high glucose-induced pro-inflammatory changes.
In February 2013, a team of scientists led by Christopher P. Stanley at the School of Graduate Entry Medicine & Health, Royal Derby Hospital, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom, published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology their scientific findings in an article entitled “Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol?” The Stanley group’s abstract states in pertinent part,
“Accumulating evidence now . . . suggests that CBD is beneficial in the cardiovascular system. CBD has direct actions on isolated arteries, causing both acute and time-dependent vasorelaxation. . . . CBD protects against the vascular damage caused by a high glucose environment, inflammation or the induction of type 2 diabetes in animal models and reduces the vascular hyperpermeability associated with such environments. A common theme throughout these studies is the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effect of CBD. . . . CBD reduces the cardiovascular response to models of stress, applied either systemically or intracranially, inhibited by a 5HT1A receptor antagonist. In blood, CBD influences the survival and death of white blood cells, white blood cell migration and platelet aggregation. . . . . further work is required to strengthen this hypothesis, establish mechanisms of action and whether similar responses to CBD would be observed in humans.
The remainder of the Stanley group’s report states in pertinent part,
“As well as a rich pharmacology, CBD is suggested to have therapeutic potential in a vast range of disorders including inflammation, oxidative stress, cancer, diabetes, gastrointestinal disturbances, neurodegenerative disorders and nociception [citing among others, Booz GW. Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51:1054–61]. Evidence is also now accumulating that there are positive effects of CBD in the vasculature. It is the aim of this review to examine this evidence and establish whether or not the cardiovascular system is a potential therapeutic target for CBD. A recent review of the safety and side effects of CBD concluded that CBD appears to be well tolerated at high doses and with chronic use in humans [citation omitted], and thus has the potential to be taken safely into the clinic. Indeed, CBD is one of the active ingredients of the currently licensed medication, Sativex®.
"In addition to the direct vascular effects of cannabinoids, a large number of studies now suggest that endocannabinoids are mediators of myocardial infarction and ischaemic/reperfusion injury, cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis [citations omitted]. See https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22670794.
In an article entitled, “Targeting the endocannabinod system to limit myocardial and cerebral ischemic and reperfusion injury," published in the January 2012 issue of the Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology journal, Ronald Tuma, Ph.D., leading a team of scientists at the Center for Substance Abuse Research and Department of Physiology, Temple University, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, wrote in the article’s abstract,
“We report experimental evidence suggesting that targeting the endocannabinoid system might evolve as a novel therapeutic concept to limit the devastating consequences of these acute vascular events through a wide variety of mechanisms, including lowering inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and excitotoxicity, and enhanced blood flow.” See https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Tuma%20RF%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=21470162.
Note: This blog is a work in progress.
CBD reduces stress.
CBD boosts number and activity level of cell mitochondria burning more calories.
CBD regulates calorie and energy balance and fat and carbohydrate metabolis.
CBD reduces intestinal inflammation through control of the neuroimmune axis.
LOWER BACK PAIN
Signals the body to send back excessive white blood cells breaking up inflammation.
The spleen is an organ in the upper far left part of the abdomen, to the left of the stomach. The spleen varies in size and shape between people, but it’s commonly fist-shaped, purple, and about 4 inches long. Because the spleen is protected by the rib cage, you can’t easily feel it unless it’s abnormally enlarged.
The spleen has more CB2 receptors than any other organ of the body. The spleen stores white blood cells. Scientists believe CBD attaches to white blood cells and breaks up inflammation in affected areas of the body.
CBD blocks inflammatory cytokines.
CBD helps flush toxins.
THE SKELETAL SYSTEM, BONES AND JOINTS
CBD improves fracture healing by indirectly stimulating collagen crosslinking and stabilization.
CBD acts as an anti-inflammatory and acts to reduce joint pain.
CBD acts as an antidote by blocking Delta-9 THC from being metabolized into 11-OH-THC.
CBD reduces nephrotoxicity effects to improve renal function.
In Hemp 107 we discuss the legal protections afforded products made from industrial hemp and how the Department of Justice and the Food and Drug Administration have attempted to violate federal law to keep CBD off the market at the behest of Big Pharma (click here).
PharmaXtracts sells the finest, purest CBD products at the lowest prices you will find anywhere. With over three decades of combined experience in the CBD industry, PharmaXtracts is a Band of Brothers who decided the CBD market needed a serious intervention. No longer could we stand by and let false information be perpetuated and insignificant dosages be taken by people in need of CBD’s many benefits. It was time for us to bring clarity to a once shady world.
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These statements have not been evaluated by the United States Food and Drug Administration. PharmaXtracts CBD products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. A doctor’s advise should be sought before using PharmaXtracts CBD products or any other cannabis extract especially if you have a serious medical condition, use prescription medications, are pregnant, or are nursing a child. Not for sale to those under the age of 21 years. Keep PharmaXtracts CBD products out of the reach of children.